Opinion on liquid breathing demonstration with Dachshund Nicholas

I am proud that, despite a 25-year break in funding, in 2014 I was able to initiate studies of liquid respiration In the Fund for Advanced Research of the Russian Federation. To train the staff of the Foundation And the Institute of Toxicology of the FMBA of Russia and to pass on to the younger generation the breakthrough technology of liquid breathing and the results of my research and development.

I believe that despite strong resistance, I managed to include Sevastopol in this work and contribute to the creation of a laboratory of experimental life support systems for biological objects on the basis of Sevastopol state University.

Nevertheless, as the author and developer and having more than 30 years of experience in liquid breathing, I will allow myself to scold the performers of the experiment with the participation of Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin, President of Serbia Alexander Vucic and Dachshund Nicholas.

1. Scientific development has not been shown. Without control sensors, the assessment of the animal’s condition is subjective. We need information before, during and after the experiments.
2. The transition to liquid respiration and the satisfactory condition of the animal is not shown in the process of liquid respiration proper. Comfort for the animal is a prerequisite for liquid breathing, without this it is forced filling and emptying the lungs. Example, comfortable for animal liquid breathing I showed still in 88 year, when dog Cosmo breathed liquid more hours and after this even more 10 years lived in 40 research Institute and gave progeny.
3. In handling the dog to raise the level of professionalism. Not the President of Serbia and Rogozin, but this little Dachshund.
4. It’s time to work out those capsules that will go under the water, to simulate the rescue of submariners, otherwise the taste of experience for the sake of experience will remain, and we must prepare for the rescue of people.
5. And so same build qualitative vivarium for dogs and observe animals in it after experiences, in environment veterinarians and medical appliances, camping on E. applies to animals responsibly.

With respect,
Andrey Filippenko
The author and developer of the technology
and Liquid Breathing apparatus

Video with correct execution of liquid breathing


Media: “It would be interesting to make a suit for diving in the Mariana trench»

A visual demonstration of the Russian development of liquid breathing stirred the Internet and social networks. Part of the audience is outraged by the inhumane” drowning ” of the Dachshund, and another part believes that the audience was deceived by issuing a short-term dive on a breath hold for a non-existent technology. But actually liquid breathing is a real development. “Attic” talked with the scientific Director of the Soviet project and the main Russian developer of the self-liquid breathing system Andrei Filippenko.

— How and when did the research in the field of liquid breathing begin?

– Historically, interest arose in the early twentieth century. Then doctors used a saline solution to understand how stretchable the human lungs are. Today, filling the lungs with saline solution is studied by students in the course of medicine. But of course it has little to do with liquid breathing. It all really started in 1962, when Johann Kilstra and his colleagues from the University of Leiden and the Dutch Navy published in the journal ASAIO (American Society of Artificial Internal Organs) Journal the famous article “Mice as fish” (of mice as fish). In their experiment, mice immersed in a buffer saline solution breathed for 18 hours, extracting oxygen from the liquid using their lungs. However, there is one important detail. Water at normal atmospheric pressure and normal temperature is able to dissolve about 3% of oxygen by volume, and this is enough for fish, but not mammals, which are accustomed to an oxygen content of about 20% (that is, the partial pressure of oxygen is 0.2 ATM). The mice were under a pressure of eight atmospheres, so they had enough oxygen (at higher pressure, you can not even fully saturate the solution with oxygen). True, the return back to breathing air was a problem-the mice died in this case, but this work gave a serious impetus to scientific research in this area.

Andrey Filipenko. Photo: Yegor Bykovsky
… those who say: “you can not Breathe salt solution — it washes away surfactants!”- in General, quite right.

— Did you find out why the animals died when they went back to breathing gas?”

— The main reason is that saline solution, even saturated with oxygen to the desired level under high pressure, is not suitable for long-term respiration of mammals. Through the lungs, the solution enters the vascular bed and into the blood, which leads to hypervolemia — an excess volume of blood and plasma, and this increases the load on the cardiovascular and many other systems of the body. In addition, the saline solution has another extremely unpleasant effect. Our lungs inside consist of a huge number of alveoli-microscopic, in fractions of a millimeter, structures in the form of bubbles, saturated with capillaries. Alveoli have a huge surface, and that they do not stick together when exhaling, they are covered with a layer of surface-active complex of proteins and phospholipids — surfactant. So, the saline solution washes away this layer! As a result, it is not enough to pump out the saline solution — you still need to restore the layer of surfactants and straighten the lungs, these are separate resuscitation measures. Therefore, those who say: “you can not Breathe salt solution — it washes away surfactants!”- in General, quite right. But here only in our system of liquid respiration saline solution is not used.

— How did you do liquid breathing?”

— I learned about this direction in the 1960s, when my father, a naval officer and a member of the research Institute of the Navy (which also dealt with the issues of the submarine fleet), offered to give a review of this idea. The topic was approved, and later in Novosibirsk Akademgorodok I saw mice that breathed salt solution. And in 1966 there was another historical article – “Survival of mammals breathing organic liquids, saturated with oxygen at atmospheric pressure” (Survival of Mammals Breathing Organic Liquids Balanced with Oxygen at Atmospheric Pressure). In the article, American biochemist and doctor Leland Clark showed that mammals-mice and cats-are able to breathe fluorocarbon liquids at atmospheric pressure for a long time. We can say that this article marked the beginning of all modern research in which perfluorocarbons are used for liquid respiration-hydrocarbons in which all hydrogen atoms are replaced by fluorine atoms. Some of these compounds have a very important property — they have an abnormally high ability to dissolve gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide. And this is just one of the main properties that are necessary for the implementation of liquid breathing.

— That is, when using perfluorocarbons, there are no problems with liquid breathing and with returning to gas breathing?

“Of course there is. The same Clark experimented with silicone oil, which also dissolves oxygen and carbon dioxide, but all such mice and cats died after returning to gas breathing. But those who breathed perfluorocarbon survived, albeit with various lung injuries and complications such as pneumonia. With perfluorocarbons has its own problems. One of them is impurities, which can be the cause of many extremely unpleasant effects. Others are high (compared to gases) density and viscosity, which can complicate the process of self-breathing – yet the lungs are not designed for such a long-term load. In the first experiments it was generally believed that spontaneous breathing animals more than 20-30 minutes is impossible and require artificial mechanical ventilation, that is, the fluid is required to pump through the lungs some pump. I do not quite agree with this, but it certainly depends on the context: in some situations, artificial ventilation is really required, and in others, independent breathing is still possible.

For example, in any?

“For example, in the submersibles.” Rescue from a depth of hundreds of meters lasts 15-20 minutes, this time a person can breathe independently. The impetus for the beginning of these works was the incident with the submarine K-429, which sank in 1983 in the far East. 16 submariners died, and the result was the increased attention of the Central Committee and the assignment of scientists to develop methods for rescuing submariners in submarine accidents. I have worked in the 40th research Institute of rescue business, diving and deep-sea work of defense of the USSR in Lomonosov, where he studied perfluorocarbons as blood substitutes (now out of such compounds the best-known “Perftoran”, developed at the Institute of Biophysics of the USSR) to combat decompression sickness. These drugs are an emulsion of 10-20% perfluorocarbons in salt solution and increase the gas transport functions of the blood. But the progress was very small: no matter how much perfluorocarbons we poured into the blood, no matter how well they dissolved the gas bubbles, they could not significantly solve the problem. Therefore, an alternative has been proposed to completely avoid decompression sickness by using liquid respiration-perfluorocarbons are able to dissolve oxygen 20 times better than water (up to 50% by volume). This means that even at normal pressure it is theoretically already possible to breathe.

In the 40th research Institute we had a dog who lived after diving for more than 10 years.

— But after all except oxygen it is necessary to deduce still carbon dioxide?

– In perfluorocarbons, carbon dioxide dissolves even better than oxygen-150-200%. So it only remains to tie him up. This can be done with the help of chemical substances such as alkalis (or some other), as implemented in the breathing apparatus with a closed breathing cycle. So this problem is, in General, a purely technical implementation.

— So in the 1980s the idea of a liquid breathing system eventually appeared?

— Well, it’s like saying in the 1960s about the manned space program: “so Gagarin flew into space.” I was the initiator of the work on liquid breathing, well, since the initiative, as you know, is punishable, I had to become a performer. When we began to experiment with dogs, it turned out that they are able to breathe on their own up to half an hour, but not longer (abroad were about the same results). It turned out that we did not yet have a good enough idea of the process of breathing. According to the theories of respiration, which existed at the time, considering the capacity of the respiratory muscles and fatigue, it turned out that a long liquid breathing impossible. But by this time there was a principle of high-frequency ventilation of lungs, that is small volumes with high frequency — not units or tens inspirations-exhalations in a minute, and hundreds. This principle, by the way, also contradicted the theories, but it worked! In this case, high-frequency ventilation requires much less effort, but even with a very small respiratory volume can still provide the necessary gas exchange. Our ideas and our knowledge of respiration were imperfect, and the hydrodynamic models and calculations of liquid respiration did not correspond to what I had seen in animal experiments. In addition, we made serious efforts to further purify the liquid (it was mainly perfluorodecalin), and this method managed to achieve very significant results: dogs breathed independently, successfully survived after returning to gas breathing, some lived after that for many years (in the 40th research Institute we had a dog who lived after immersion for more than 10 years) and gave healthy offspring. If to adhere to our methodologies, dogs survive and live after this long and nothing not differ from other dogs. Except the fact that they exhibit the increased attention.

“What about washing off the surfactant and straightening the lungs?”

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