Developments

Liquid Breathing Technology

Scientific problem

To breathe under water, you need to compensate for the pressure of water on the chest and the person is forced to breathe air or gas mixtures under high pressure.

Decompression sickness divers (submariners) — a disease that occurs due to the rapid decrease in pressure when lifting from great depths.

Gases dissolved in the blood and tissues of the body (in the period of higher pressure), begin to be released as bubbles into the blood and block blood flow in the arteries and cavities of the heart (ultrasound at the bottom right).

In severe decompression sickness leads to paralysis and death.

Get rid of decompression gas bubbles in the blood can be very slow (with prolonged stops) rise, which is fraught with freezing in cold water.

Solution: Liquid Breathing

Breathing liquid fluorocarbon, carrying 40-50% O2 at normal pressure, eliminates the very cause of caisson disease while maintaining normal gas exchange.

Replacing an inert gas with an almost incompressible liquid makes a liquid-solid body “pseudohomogeneous” for different shock loads. In particular, this allows for shock compression and “explosive” decompression-rapid surfacing without freezing in cold waters from the maximum depths for the submarine hull.

Advantages of Liquid Breathing in comparison with other technologies:

Depth and pressure drops have almost no effect on a person whose cavities (lungs) are filled with liquid. When breathing gas (oxygen-nitrogen-helium mixture) occurs at a depth drop fatal decompression sickness, which in liquid breathing does not occur even with a rapid free ascent from a depth of 1km.
Now divers are forced to stay at the same depth for a long time when diving and when surfacing. Liquid breathing allows you to move easily in three dimensions.
The maximum depth of the dive is many times greater than currently achievable, the exact calculation is unknown, but it is known that > 1000m.
The threshold of permissible acceleration is ten times higher. Military pilots lose consciousness at ~10g (in overalls and after many years of training), with liquid breathing, it is possible to easily transfer 100g or more even without training.
About technology
A person can breathe not only gas (air), but also liquid.

Repeated animal experiments and medical use of the liquid (perfluorocarbon) have shown the safety of the application.

Only team A. Filippenko managed achieve success in retaining animals (dogs) under liquid breathing in full consciousness for 2-3kh hours, under climate pressure and without harm for health.

On the basis of experiments on animals, it was possible to develop the principle and features of the device of the liquid breathing apparatus and an accurate liquid purification system for safe use.

The first experiment of immersion to a depth of 30 meters in the mode of liquid breathing with full consciousness should prove the correctness of the calculations and, perhaps, correct the device of the liquid breathing apparatus.

 

Researches

Domestic research

 

In 1986 -1990 years in the Institute of pulmonology 1 Leningrad medical Institute. Acad.I. p. Pavlova in R & d “drying Oil MOH” commissioned by the Soviet Navy studied the possibility of using liquid breathing to rescue submariners in experiments on large laboratory animals (dogs).

In 1988, in the barocomplex 40 research Institute of emergency rescue, diving deep-sea works of the Navy, we conducted a number of successful experiments on dogs, including simulation in the pressure chamber of surfacing from depths up to 700 m.

In 2015, full-scale (marine) tests at a depth of 27 m were carried out in the advance project of A. V. Filippenko “Terek”. The dog was in fluorocarbon, head down.

 

Foreign research

 

For the first time liquid respiration for protection against decompression (with 300 m for 3 s) in 1962 was used by the Dutchman J. Kylstra in experiments on mice (their lungs were filled with a solution of water under pressure saturated with O2).

Since the 90s, partial liquid fluorocarbon respiration (Sheffer T. &Wolfson M.) has saved hundreds of premature babies, in the US and England. The method involves gas-liquid mechanical ventilation of the lungs with a mixture of fluorocarbon liquid with O2 under General anesthesia.

Latest R & d commissioned by the Navy in Europe and the US:

In 2012, a consortium of German and British firms BFA and HDW completed R & d to upgrade the submarine escape hatch to provide access to depths of up to 550 m, although according to the open press, liquid breathing has not been mastered abroad.
In 2014, by order of the us Navy, NuvOX (USA) was to complete the first phase of clinical trials of the drug fluorocarbon.
Examples in popular science films
Episodes of liquid breathing in the sci-Fi film Abyss, directed by James Cameron.

The episode with the liquid breathing rat

The episode with the liquid breath of the person

 

Liquid breathing apparatus AVF

The main factors forming a new niche in the market of individual rescue equipment are the liquid type of breathing, the depth of use of the device and the time spent by a person in the compartment of an emergency boat with high pressure.

Perfluorocarbon ventilation is a unique feature of these devices, which have no analogues in the world.

Liquid breathing allows the use of devices AVF15, AVF60, AVF240 at depths of 250-1000 m without the risk of decompression sickness. This is of particular value to the consumer.

Inclusion in the apparatus of liquid breathing is carried out independently for 10 minutes.

The liquid type of breathing, the depth of use of the device and the time a person is in the compartment of an emergency boat with high pressure are the main competitive advantages of AVF15, AVF60, AVF240.

With their help, users have great opportunities in the study of the ocean depths, the production of deep-sea works, guaranteeing full protection from decompression sickness.

The main advantages of the apparatus of AVF

Liquid breathing apparatus AVF15

AVF15 is used for self-rescue by free ascent from depths of 250-1000 m.

Scope of use: deep-sea habitable vehicles, tourist submarines.

The use of AVF15 is the only opportunity for crews to escape by free ascent from depths of 250-1000 m, ensuring the safe work of ocean explorers and tourists.

The time of operation of the device under water for 15 minutes allows the entire crew at a normal working pace, observing all the rules of evacuation, to leave the emergency submarine in the conditions of a possible increase in pressure in the compartment – this is a decisive factor for the success of the rescue operation.

The presence of such a rescue vehicle on Board the deep-sea vehicle ensures the safe work of ocean explorers.

Main characteristics and parameters of AVF15:

  • Type of breathing – liquid;
  • Capacity-5L;
  • Depth of recovery: 250-1000 m;
  • Rescue type: free ascent;
  • Work cycle: closed;
  • Length, mm: 350
  • Width, mm: 100
  • Height, mm: 400
  • Working time underwater: 15 minutes;
  • Buoyancy: neutral;
  • Weight: 10 kg;

Liquid breathing apparatus AVF60

AVF60 is used to stay in the compartments of an emergency submarine under high pressure for 45 minutes followed by self rescue free ascent from depths of 250-1000 m

Operating time under high pressure and water-60 minutes.

For crews of research deep-sea vehicles and tourist submarines, the AVF60 allows for hull repairs, freeing the boat from the nets, or making a unique exploration of the ocean floor.

Scope of use: submarines, deep-sea manned vehicles with a hatch to exit the hull into the sea.

Main characteristics and parameters of AVF60:

Type of breathing – liquid;
Capacity-7L;
Depth of recovery: 250-1000 m;
Rescue type: free ascent;
Work cycle: closed;
Length, mm: 350
Width, mm: 150
Height, mm: 420
Working time underwater: 60 minutes;
Buoyancy: neutral;
Weight: 18 kg;
Liquid breathing apparatus AVF240

AVF240 is designed for rescue divers, organizing the exit of crews from emergency submarines, as well as professional deep-sea work 2-4 hours at a depth of 500-1000 m.

A professional rescue team, including such rescue divers, can be parachuted to the scene of a submarine accident from an aircraft or helicopter, which is significantly faster than delivering a rescue submarine on a surface ship or submarine.

A unique feature of the AVF240, which gives a breakthrough competitive advantage, is the tactile sensitivity of the diver, which is very important for complex repair work at deep – sea oil and gas production facilities, in the study of the ocean floor.

Scope of use: underwater manned vehicles, submarines – for rescue divers, organizing the exit of the crew from underwater vehicles; deep-sea work, archaeology; oil and gas production-underwater structures, their maintenance and repair.

Main characteristics and parameters of AVF240:

Type of breathing – liquid;
Capacity-10 l;
Working depth: 500 -1000 m;
Work cycle: closed;
Length, mm: 380
Width, mm: 200
Height, mm: 550
Working time underwater: 240 minutes;
Buoyancy: neutral;
Weight: 36 kg;

 

Complementary services

Users of devices AVF15, AVF60, AVF240 are offered training.

The training course is designed for 30 hours, including theoretical and practical parts.

The purpose of the training course-to make the work with the device as simple as possible-is achieved through practical training in the pool with experienced instructors of the service center of the company AVF.

The training course maximally reduces the risk of the human factor in working with the device.

In order to maintain the skills of working with devices, it is recommended to take a training course once every five years.

Functions of the service center:

training to work with the device;
consulting service;
technical support;
maintenance and repair;
completion of the device for the customer.
Application possibility
Rescue and repair works

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